Inspection of PCBs and Its Types | PCB Prototype | PCBGOGODec 04.2018, 09:38:16
We classify PCBs into three types on the basis of the number of layers, single-sided, double-sided, and multi-layer. We can also classify them as flexible PCBs or rigid PCBs and flex-rigid PCBs. On the other hand if we classify them according to quality then we have three classes, Class1, Class 2 and Class 3. Class 3 is the most complex and these PCBs undergo the best inspection method. In this article we will discuss the quality inspection of rigid double-sided and multi-layered PCBs. Inspection is done to ensure the quality is up to mark and these are no errors or defects. Inspection Standards:PCB inspection can be categorized as the following types: PCB standards made by a countryMilitary PCB standards by the military of a countryPCB industrial standards (for e.g.SJ/T10309)Inspection for PCB standard quality set by device supplierInspection for PCB requirement pre-labeled on PCB design drawings PCB Inspection Items: If we talk about the basic quality inspection methods th...
Using Return Paths that Follow Least Impedance to create a better PCB DesignDec 04.2018, 09:25:34
Introduction: When current flows through a circuit, the high-speed signals established will follow the path of least impedance rather than least resistance. Return path is the path the current takes to return to the source. We will discuss which return path can be used to make our PCB designs better.Over time the demand for smaller PCBs has increased rapidly. At the same time the use of flexible and rigid-flex circuits also increased. As a result the operating voltages have reduced dramatically. But engineers always aim to make their designs better, faster and more accurate. How can you achieve that?Routing Return PathsWe know that an electric field is set up in the areas an alternating current passes through in the circuit. These field lines will permeate through the surrounding conductors and transfer to nearby circuits too. The time taken for the changes in magnetic field to reach the far ends of your circuit is actually at a fraction of the speed of light. Whenever a change of ...
Choosing the Correct Thickness for PCB PrototypeDec 03.2018, 10:56:37
Introduction: While manufacturing a PCB, there are many factors that will influence the performance of your PCB. One of them is the thickness of your PCB. The thickness will affect the conductivity and resistance of your PCB and so you will have to choose the perfect thickness so your PCB can fit its applications accurately. In this article we will discuss the various standards of thickness available for PCBs and how you can choose the correct standard for yours. There are a number of things to consider before you make your choice. The application is a major factor but the profile, weight, components etc. all play a part too. Over years the size of PCBs has grown smaller, lighter and thinner so the thickness should also fit these standards. PCB Thickness Options:The number of layers your PCB determines the overall thickness of your PCB. Some applications require a thicker PCB while some require a thinner type. SO the thickness has very varying standards. The typical range of thic...
PCB Prototyping | Design | Flow and StagesDec 03.2018, 10:42:37
Introduction: PCB design flow is the steps taken in the designing of a Printed Circuit Board. In this article we will discuss the importance of PCB prototyping and development in design flow. Essentially these two are the fundamental stages of PCB design flow i.e. Prototyping and Product Development. We will describe them and then discuss these stages in detail. Prototyping:This is the first stage prior to the development stage. In this stage one of more engineers research and define a certain application they wish to build the PCB for. The design is supposed to fit into the application it is built on, and it should show accuracy, efficiency using minimum time and resources. Keep the number of prototypes minimizes as this will consume lesser time and resources. Once the prototype design is confirmed it is passed onto the next stage i.e. product development. Product Development:In the stage the PCB prototype is implemented into building the final PCB ready for its application. The...
Top 7 Most Common Gerber File Mistakes and How to Avoid Them | PCBGOGODec 01.2018, 09:18:08
PCB manufacturing is not a simple process. It has so many individual components to manage and to process. The absence of one component could delay the entire production of your PCB and may even cost you money. One of the most important components is the Gerber file which essentially describes your PCBs’ layout, layers, design, solder mask etc. The Gerber file helps in the fabrication of your PCB. Here we will discuss the top seven most common mistakes regarding Gerber files that can delay your PCB production and exactly how you can avoid them. 1: Missing Aperture List: An aperture list contains the description of the shape and size of the tool used to create pads and tracks. The Gerber file should contain a single aperture list for all layers rather than separate. It is best to not modify the aperture list your software outputs. When 274X format is used, the aperture list is contained within the Gerber file. If you use a 274D format, keep in mind the layout packages also output an ...
How to Avoid Technical Issues in Flexible PCBNov 22.2018, 09:55:23
When ordering rigid-flex or flex circuits online, if your design faces technical issues or if the data is incomplete your quick turn order delivery can be delayed. The technical issues may arise due to an error in the manufacturing or the end use of the parts. These technical issues are resolved through communications and in some cases, thorough design revision. This will set back the pre-set delivery date of the products. The real question is how to avoid such issues from arising? Here we will discuss some of the common issues you might face and how you can avoid delays caused by these issues. In this way you can complete assembly and delivery of your product as soon as possible.Submitting Incomplete Data SetsThis has to be one of the leading causes of delays in quick turn delivery. While submitting your data you will always be urged to recheck whether or not the data you provided is complete or not. Your data set should contain the required Gerber file(s), a mechanical drawing or s...
Flex-Rigid PCB Manufacturing Technology | PCBgogoNov 22.2018, 09:43:19
Introduction:Rigid PCBs are something you will encounter almost everywhere. Their applications range from small electrical devices to large aerospace, military and medical fields. Next if we talk about ‘Flexible PCBs’, they are built of flexible substrate as opposed to rigid PCBS, and have more advantages too. They have lower thickness, have lighter weight, are dynamically bendable, can save space and are more accessible for 3D interconnection assembly. They also have equally vast applications because of their excellent electrical and thermal performance. The next major type is the ‘Flex-Rigid PCB” built through further development and optimization of flexible PCBs. We will discuss the properties, manufacturing and applications of Flex-rigid PCBs. But first let us generally describe Rigid-flex PCBs. What are Flex-rigid PCBs?Flex-rigid PCBS are boards using a combination of flexible and rigid board technology. They consist of multiple layers of flexible circuit substrates attached t...
PCB Prototype Surface Finishes and their types | Fruitful Article by PCBGOGONov 22.2018, 09:24:33
In the manufacturing of PCBs, we know that they are given copper finishes on their surface in order to protect them from environmental effects such as oxidation, humidity etc. If they are not given surface finishes, they can become unusable. It also provides a solderable surface onto which components can be assembled. HASL is one of the most common methods used in surface finishing. However with the passage of time, PCB pitches are becoming finer and therefore a thinner surface coat is required. Therefore, some alternatives to HASL are used such as electrolysis and immersion process. Here we will discuss some of the common surface finishes you will commonly see in PSB manufacturing, their advantages and downsides etc. 1: HASL / Lead Free HASL: HASL (hot air solder leveling) as mentioned before is the predominantly used method. In this process the PCB is first dipped into a bath of molten solder so the entire exposed surface is covered and then the excess is removed by passing the...
How to open Gerber files in AutoCAD with free open source toolsOct 16.2018, 13:54:21
Here is a method for how you can import a Gerber RS-274X file into AutoCAD. There are many commercial software solutions to perform this, but this is how you can do it for free using open source tools!You'll need to install and configure (if needed) the following software.gerbv – this is used to view Gerber files, and can also export to a variety of formats (but not DXF or DWG for AutoCAD)pstoedit – converts Postscript files to many different other formatsghostscript – needed by pstoeditOpen your Gerber files in gerbv. This process work for multiple layers as well. You should see your Gerber to make sure it is what it should be.Export the Gerber set to PostScript. File -> Export -> Postscript…Optionally, if you don’t need to visually check the Gerber file in gerbv, gerbv supports exporting via the command line, for example: gerbv -x ps MYGERBER.GTL Now convert the Postscript (.ps) file to DXF using pstoedit. This is best done on the command line.pstoedit -f dxf foobar.ps foobar.dxf Now...