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How does double-sided SMT assembly work?

171 0 Jun 17.2022, 13:40:47
Hello everyone and welcome to this article. Today we are going to have a look at double-sided Surface Mount Technology (SMT) assembly and how it works. It is good to remember that Surface Mount Technology is used in attaching electrical components to a printed circuit board where the components are attached on the surface of the PCB without drilling holes. The components attached can be either leaded or non-leaded. Also, you need to remember that double-sided PCBs, are a type of board that provides both sides with conductive layers for the components. This means that both the bottom and the top layers have conductive paths. Both sides of the board have a covering of copper which acts as the current-carrying material. Now let us have a look at how the double-sided SMT assembly is done.What SMT assembly isSMT assembly stands for Surface Mount Technology assembly and it is classified as a type of soldering technology that employs the use of the reflow soldering technology or any other def...

How does Functional Testing work in PCB Assembly?

138 0 Jun 06.2022, 10:04:49
In every industrial setup, some things define acceptable and nonacceptable behaviors. This could be defined in the requirement or functional specifications. It is a guide that explains what the user is allowed to do and how he can determine the system and application conformance to it. In addition, this could include the exact business scenario that should be validated. In these introductory remarks, it is good to take note that functional testing can be carried out by making use of these two well-known techniques:Requirement-based testing: this will entail all functional specifications that will form the foundation of all the other tests to be carried out.Business scenario-based testing: here it is done based on the information that is perceived from how the system will behave when it is ready for business or market point of view.The PCB design process involves several components that are required to achieve several functions. These components must be tested to ensure that they ach...

All About PCB Panelization

159 0 May 28.2022, 12:16:53
PCB panelization is to combine multiple separate circuit boards that share the same number of layers, thickness, and other parameters into one large board. In this way, a variety of boards can be produced at one time which speeds up the production and lowers the cost of PCB prototypes. Benefits of PCB panelization Improve the utilization rate of the boardGenerally, the copper-clad laminates used in PCB production are of fixed size. Rotating specially shaped boards from 90° to 180° and fitting them into the standard size panel can maximize space and reduce waste.Figure 1 PCB rotating in a panel Facilitate SMT assembly processIt is more effective to process multiple boards at once. Several boards into a panel increase the number of components for the placement, which also improves the efficiency of the Pick and Place machine. Types of PCB panelization V-cutV-cut is the most popular panel method for PCB manufacturing. It refers to a dividing line cut by a rotary cutter at a...

PCB Vias: Types, Design, Covering

366 0 May 25.2022, 15:38:16
Due to the miniaturization of electronic products and the increasing complexity of PCB design, multi-layer boards are widely used, of them vias are one of the important structures that establish connections between isolated copper layers. Types of vias Vias either serve as the electrical connection between layers or are used for fixing or positioning devices. There are three commonly seen vias: Through-hole, Blind via, and Buried via. Through-hole Through-hole is the most common type of hole which goes from one side of the circuit board to the other side. Through holes includes plated through holes (PTH) and non-plated through holes (NPTH). The way to distinguish them is to see if there is a layer of copper plating inside the hole wall. Vias are made by drilling. As the interior of the PCB is an insulating material, electroplating is applied to allow the electrons to move and conduct electricity. Figure 1 NPTH versus PTH The diameter of NPTH is usually larger than that o...

Aluminum PCB- Ideal Solution For Heat Dissipation Requirement

176 0 May 18.2022, 15:59:59
PCB is the core of modern electronics. It is used in all kinds of equipment, from small IoT devices medical devices, industrial robots, automobiles, and aircraft. To ensure your project work as intended, it is important to select the right substrate for the PCBs. As one of the popular metal-core PCBs, Aluminum PCBs have been widely used in electronic devices for their excellent Heat dissipation. In this article, we will discuss the Aluminum PCB in detail regarding its structure, characteristics, and applications.What is Aluminum PCBAluminum PCBs are aluminum-based copper-clad laminate that consists of a circuit layer (copper foil), a dielectric layer, and an aluminum substrate.Figure 1: Structure of an Aluminum PCBCircuit layerThe circuit layer (generally electrolytic copper foil) is etched to form a printed circuit for assembly and connection of devices. Compared with the traditional FR-4 with the same thickness and the same line width, the aluminum PCB can carry a higher current.Ba...

What is IC programming in PCB assembly?

302 0 May 14.2022, 10:29:26
The PCB assembly process has advanced in matters of technology leading to great maturity that has triggered its extremely encouraging application range. It has a great role to play in modern days electronic and intelligent devices. To make such boards comprehend the functionality of the hardware and the design, there is a need to ensure that we have a matching program, software, and the same hardware. This matching process will be achieved through a process of programming whereby a program is fed into the IC to deliver the expected functionality. The PCB design process also involves several components that are required to achieve several functions. These components must be tested to ensure that they achieve the required goals. In this article, we are going to emphasize the different types of Integrated circuit (IC) programming, the steps of IC programming, and why IC programming is essential in the area of PCB and electronic design. Let us jump into the definition of IC progra...

How Does Electrical Testing Work in PCB Manufacturing

150 0 Apr 29.2022, 17:18:39
In the manufacturing process of PCBs, electrical defects such as short circuits, open circuits, and leakage might occur due to external factors. As PCBs continue to evolve towards high density, fine pitch, and multi-layers, the difficulties and cost of rework will significantly increase if the defective board is not screened out at an early stage and flow into the following-up process. To improve the rate of qualified products, electrical testing must be conducted in the PCB manufacturing process. Some key terms: Net: A net on a printed circuit board is a set of points that are electrically connected to a start and endpoint by the traces we design. It includes component pads, traces, test points (if any), and copper planes associated with the same connection. Netlist: It refers to a connected group of two or more points in a PCB that share common electrical properties. Main procedures of electrical testing Capacitance Testing: It is to detect the shorts on the board. By app...

Transistors

365 0 Apr 28.2022, 14:10:28
Transistors (Q) Transistors are regarded as the basic building blocks that regulate the operation of almost all modern electronic circuits. They are solid-state semiconductor devices including diodes, triodes, field-effect transistors, thyristors, etc., sometimes referred to as bipolar devices. As a variable current switch, transistors can control the output current based on the input voltage. Different from ordinary mechanical switches such as Relay, transistors use electrical signals to control their own opening and closing, so their switching speed can be very fast and can reach more than 100GHz in the laboratory. Transistor has three electrodes and there are also three ways to use them, namely emitter grounding (also known as common emitter amplification, CE configuration), base grounding (common base amplification, CB configuration), and collector grounding ( set amplification, CC configuration, emitter follower). Due to their fast response and high accuracy, transistors ar...

Fuse

202 0 Apr 28.2022, 13:52:47
Fuse (FU) A fuse is an an electrical safety device defined by IEC127 standard as a "fuse-link".It mainly plays the role of overcurrent protection of a circuit. When faults in a circuit occur, the current might continuously increase and damage some important components in the circuit. In a worse case,it will burn the circuit or even cause a fire. If the fuse is correctly assembled in the circuit, it will break the ciruit when too much current flow through. A fuse consists of three parts including metal wire, electrode part and the bracket. Metal wire is the core of a fuse that will melt to interupt the circuit. There are usually two eletrode parts in a fuse to connect the wire and the ciruit. As the wire of fule is thin and soft, a braket is used to fix the metal wire and intergrate three parts into a rigid whole for easy installation and use.

Capacitors

349 0 Apr 28.2022, 11:56:33
Capacitors (C)A capacitor consists of two conductive plates separated by an insulating dielectric. It stores electrical charge when a voltage is applied between its two plates. Their capacitance is a measure of how much charge they can hold and is numerically equal to the ratio of the amount of charge on one conducting plate to the voltage between the two plates. Represented by the letter C in a circuit, its basic unit of capacitance is the farad (F).Capacitors include polar and Non-polarized types. Non-polarized capacitors can be used in both AC and DC circuits as they do not have positive or negative polarities. While Polar capacitors have an inherent polarity so they can only be used in one direction in a circuit. How to distinguish between polar and Non-polarized capacitors?Generally, there is a mark regarding AC or DC on the capacitors. Those with positive and negative polarities markings can only be used in DC circuits, while others are non-polarized and can be used in both AC ...