In recent years, the automobile industry has seen a massive shift from fuel vehicles to electric vehicles like new energy vehicles. New energy vehicles PCBs are unique boards designed for these electric vehicles. The shift from traditional to electric vehicles has increased the demand for PCBs in the automobile world since electric vehicles require more PCBs than traditional vehicles. This article is set to help learn more about new energy vehicle PCBs to increase your knowledge on these PCBs. Let’s dive in.
Figure 1. New energy vehicle PCB
Components of New Energy Vehicles
Let’s first look at new energy vehicles themselves before we dive into their PCBs. These vehicles have unique components that make them different from traditional vehicles. Below are their components:
Onboard charger: charges the new energy vehicle and therefore serves as its energy source
Power battery: provides electricity to power vehicle accessories
Energy storage: stores energy for the vehicle
Power distribution: distributes power to various components of the board and the vehicle
Driving motor: the source of power that drives the vehicle
Speed controller: regulates the speed of the vehicle
Figure 2. New energy vehicle components
Power Control Systems in New Energy Vehicles
New energy vehicles have 3 main power control system built on PCBs.
VCU–Vehicle Control Unit
The VCU of the new energy vehicle is mainly made of control circuits and algorithm software. Built on the new energy vehicle PCB to regulate its operation, its function is to supervise the vehicle and to make a decision for the power control system. The PCB used to control the VCU is about 0.03 square meters.
MCU-Moter Control Unit
Similar to the VCU, the MCU is also composed of control circuits and algorithm software. The MCU regulates the electromotor of the vehicle by following instructions from the VCU to enable the motor to send alternating current to the vehicle. The PCB for the MCU is about 0.15 square meters.
BMS- Battery Management System
The BMS is an all-important component of the battery system of new energy vehicles. The main function of the BMS is to manage and protect the battery unit. The BMS does this by performing several tasks. It collects and computes voltage, current, and SOC data thereby controlling the discharge and recharge of the battery. The BMU examines the voltage, current, and balance control of the battery unit.
The BMS has hardware that consists of BCU and BMU. The BCU component of the battery management system controls relay, estimates SOC, and provides electric protection. The BMU supervises voltage data, battery current, and ensures there is a control balance in the power control system of the vehicle. All these functions of the BMS help to prevent the battery from damaging.
Due to the complex nature of the BMS, it requires multilayer PCBs for stability and proper functioning. It also requires several PCBs.They need about 0.24 square meters of PCB for the master control unit and 2 to 3 square meters for an individual management system.
Applications of New Energy Vehicle PCBs in the Automobile Industry
New energy vehicle PCBs have several applications in the automobile industry. Below are some of their popular applications:
Sensors of transmission
Audio and stereo components
Power distribution board
Emergency assist system
Engine timing system
Central control system
Figure 3. Applications of New Energy Vehicle PCBs
Features of New Energy Vehicle PCB
New energy vehicles PCBs possess some unique features that make them different from other PCBs. Below are some of these features:
Suitable for High-Temperature
One unique features of new energy vehicle PCBs is their ability to withsatnd high temperatures. These PCBs are less dense and this helps them dissipate heat. They have unique properties that make them suitable for high temperatures.
Reliable in diverse environments
New energy vehicles PCBs are reliable and have a long life span because high quality and stronger materials are used for making them. They are suited for harsh working conditions of automobiles without any damages even in different locations with varying environmental conditions.
Vehicles attract dirt onto themselves when they are driven. To help protect these vehicles from dirt and their negative effects like short-circuiting and malfunctioning, these PCBs are built to be dirt resistant. New energy vehicle manufacturers use various laminations on these PCBs to protect them from dirt.
Figure 4. Features of new energy vehicle PCB
New Energy Vehicle PCB Design and Prototyping
Like any PCB manufacturing process, you first need a PCB prototype to test the design and check whether it is well-functioning. Then it comes to the step of designing a prototype PCB. Designing software is used for this purpose which helps to create precise and accurate PCB prototypes that meet industry requirements. Below are the steps to follow to create the new energy vehicle PCB prototype.
Determine The Specifications Of The PCB
Here, you need to determine all the specifications of the PCB to help you design accurately and also meet the requirements of the vehicle. Some of the specifications to consider for your PCB include the thickness of the board, the number of layers, the type of material, impedance, finishing for the plate, minimum pitch, holes size, castellated holes, and spacing parameters. With this information accurately outlined, the prototype can be designed with precision.
Check Design To Correct Any Errors
Once the design is complete, the next step is to check and verify if the design is accurate and meets all the PCB specifications. With the help of the design software, you can troubleshoot and correct all errors in the prototype’s design.
Generate Gerber Files
The next step is to generate Gerber files for the design created. Gerber files help to arrange the entire process in an orderly manner.
Stack Up Documents
After the creation of the Gerber files, there is a need to create a stack up for the board.
The complex nature and high requirements of new energy vehicle PCBs demand that they are produced with multi-layers. This is to help the board withstand high temperature and pressure and function at an optimum level. To achieve this, the different layers are bound together to form a single unit. This process is referred to as lamination.
Here, all the layers are arranged in an orderly manner and labeled correctly. Once the stack-up is completed, the next step is to create the prototype. After the creation of the prototype, various tests are done on it to verify if it functions as required.
The automobile world is swiftly moving from fuel-powered vehicles to electronic vehicles. As this shift occurs, we are going to see a rise in the demand for new energy vehicles PCBs, since more of these boards will be needed. There is therefore the need to understand these PCBs so that they can be optimized. This article presented you with great information on the components of new energy vehicle PCBs, power control systems in new energy vehicles, applications and features of new energy vehicle PCBs, and prototyping of these PCBs. We hope this information has helped you learn and increase your knowledge of these PCBs.
If you have any questions or inquiries on these PCBs, feel free to contact PCBgogo . If you also need the best new energy vehicle PCBs, PCBgogo is your best PCB manufacturer and supplier. As a leading PCB manufacturer in China, we have unmatched expertise, experience, and modern facilities that help us to produce and offer you super quality and reliable new energy vehicle PCBs. Contact us now for your unique new energy vehicle PCB that meets all your requirements. What’s more? You will receive your PCBs on time and safely.